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10月21日上午，2016凤凰·鼓浪屿诗歌节第二天，主题为“个人化写作与外来文化影响”的诗歌国际论坛在鼓浪屿举办。诗人赵野，赵四，李少君，树才，李元胜，默默，韩庆成，廖伟棠，林于弘、黄冈、加拿大诗人洛尔娜·克罗奇（Lorna Crozier），英国诗人李道（Richard Bruns），印度汉学学者、诗人普利亚达西·墨普德教授、韩国翻译家金泰成等人在论坛做出精彩又有见地的发言。论坛由诗人、翻译家、评论家汪剑釗和诗人北塔主持。
On “Individual Writingand Foreign Culture’s Influence”
Writing is all about individual. Morespecifically, poem writing always features certain individuality.
Individuality means a concrete writer, “theone” with an exact and specific name, instead of “one" that is ambiguousand uncertain. The individuality of poetic writing exists at all times and inall countries.
Thenwho is the first recorded Chinese poet? It is Quyuan, whose given name is Pingand who styled himself as Yuan. We can see from the ancient names that givenname and style name are mutually complementary and consistent with each other.People call a flat and vast expanse of land as Pingyuan (plain). Qu is hisfamily name, and his life seemed to be destined by it: treated with injustice,full of grief and indignation, he became desperate and finally drowned himselfin the Miluo River with stones fastened (if it happened today, it would bereported that depressive disorder caused his death). Indignation makes poets,so does injustice. The sufferance from repression aroused his long- restrainedpassion and ambition, which contributed a kind of shared characteristic toChinese poets and their poems: wronged and desperate, while still highlymotivated with ambition. Poems afterwards featuring “melancholy” became moreindividualized. So dull, so damp, so dank, so dead from a poem by Li Qingzhao,for example.
Poetry prevailed in Tang Dynasty. Even now,there is still some modern poets who regard “let poetry back to Tang Dynasty”as their life goal. Apparently, there is no going back to Tang Dynasty, if so,just in dreams. Poetry advances towards the future and never dwells in thepast. Tang Dynasty belongs to itself and to poets like Libai, Wangwei, Dufu,and Bai juyi…. Each of them has a concrete name. Composed of five-character orseven-character lines, Chinese poetry has made it to its summit. However, thepoets like Libai, Wangwei, Dufu and Baijuyi, reached the summit separately fromdifferent places, at diverging paces and speeds, with various rhythms ofbreath. It is fair to say, they reached their own-belonged summit of poetry.The mountain of poetry is not separated or isolated but integral and united,just like the Cang Mountain in Dali with no conjunct crest. The poems by Li,Wang, Du, and Bai…… make us realize the individuality of poetry writing meansthe embedment of poets’ individual life in the poems with personality andunique view and voice with which poets perceive the outside and express theinside.
After all, individuality is the uniquenessof personal expression by which a poet distinguishes himself from others andmakes him recognizable by readers. Even the truth is all about individuality,needless to say poetry. Writing poems is a personal way in which poets seek thetruth.
2. Can culturebe labelled as “local” and “foreign”? Better not!
As I have noticed, over hundreds of yearsof evolution, there have been two concerns over poetry: the ancient/modernargument and Chinese/Western argument.
It seems that the dramatic transition fromclassical Chinese to vernacular Chinese has been the solution of the argumenton ancient and modern. Well, it has not. Discovery has been made that there arestill numerous ancient poetry learners even though modern poetry dominatesnowadays. Seemingly, people of two sides share nothing in common and thinkslittle of one another. In practice, the individuality of writing makes theircommon ground. Those featuring five or seven character are defined as poemswith fixed formality (traditional poems, which has compulsory requirements ofform). Deriving from vernacular Chinese, modern poetry is classified asnon-traditional poems (which has abandon the employment of rhyme and hasdifferent length, focusing on word organization, emotion expressing andrhythm). I am convinced that ancient poetry is still alive in modern poetsbecause the imperceptibility hidden in poetry can be passed down as blood andgene, but a DNA test tells all. Tradition like poetry never fails to renovate.The power of tradition enables itself to extend its vitality and createsomething new.
Theargument on Chinese and foreign is reflected in opposite views on originalwriting and the influence of translation. In fact, each of modern Chinese poetis standing at the crossroads of antiqueness/nativeness andmodernity/foreignness. When green light is on, they cross over and keep pacinguntil the next crossroad confronts them. What is culture? It includes all thebehavior and habits echoed in our daily life. To some extent, it contains thecontents whether they are modern or ancient, Chinese or foreign. Isolated andmonolith culture never exists. It is more suitable to regard it as assimilationor transition than influence. Figuratively, it is like eating food. Poets eatwhatever is fresh and nutritive, whether it is from the ancient or the foreign.Digestion happens inevitably even if there is a risk of diarrhea.Optimistically, diarrhea is good for intestinal sweeping. Since the Buddhismwas introduced in China around the 1st century AD, a large amount of words havebeen brought along, most of which are Buddhist sutras. Westernization Movementstimulating the development of translation has contributed the formation of newideas and concepts composed of borrowed words from translated works. The birthof new poetry is on one hand due to the internal promotion of traditionalpoetry, but on the other hand, undeniably, is most attributed to the directmotivation aroused by the translation of foreign poetry. The great modernChinese writer Luxun was in the first place a translator. Widely, all themodern Chinese ideas and concepts that we count on owe to translation, fromhumanity, democracy to metaphysics and existence…..
Dhyanna is a Buddhist sect which hadits roots in translated sutras and later developed into a new treasure ofChinese wisdom. It is also true of the modernity of Chinese poetry which can beachieved through the absorptivity and creativity inhered in Chinese language.
What I am thinking is that we should not berestricted and confined by the dual anxiety caused by the two arguments, andthink about “the intertextuality of creation” and “the possibility oftranslation” with a global perspective.
The practice and thinking over translationmake me increasingly realize that we are experiencing a new era of translation.The translation of one poem is all about the recreation of the other. ModernChinese poetry are facing new possibility and growing point through thestimulation and nourishment incurred by translated poetry and by no means ofnostrum.
The influence brought by foreign culture isequivalent to that brought by translated poetry. It happens to each of poet.There is an emerging type of poetry, with the quality of hybridism, which isaccumulating in scales and which is assimilating "the concerns overinfluence” and internalizing it as “the attempt to renew”. It is calledtranslated poetry.