树才:要从古今之争、中外之争的双重焦虑中跳出来

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个人化写作与外来文化影响

10月21日上午,2016凤凰·鼓浪屿诗歌节第二天,主题为“个人化写作与外来文化影响”的诗歌国际论坛在鼓浪屿举办。诗人赵野,赵四,李少君,树才,李元胜,默默,韩庆成,廖伟棠,林于弘、黄冈、加拿大诗人洛尔娜·克罗奇(Lorna Crozier),英国诗人李道(Richard Bruns),印度汉学学者、诗人普利亚达西·墨普德教授、韩国翻译家金泰成等人在论坛做出精彩又有见地的发言。论坛由诗人、翻译家、评论家汪剑釗和诗人北塔主持。

鼓浪屿拥有“万国建筑博览”美誉,东方文化与西方文化交会于此,闽南文化与外来文化共融于此。“鼓浪屿女婿”林语堂自评“两脚踏东西文化,一心评宇宙文章”。于诗人而言,外来文化将如何影响个人写作?作为“世界人”的诗人,一方面孜孜不倦地从自身文化中汲取养分,另一方面又无时不刻不体会着全球化带来的“文化震撼”,从而形成观念的冲突、矛盾、变形、融合、促进,进而可能形成写作的自我革新。

树才

 

以下为树才的发言实录:

1.写作从来都是个人的,就是说,诗歌写作,从来都具有某种个人性。

个人性,就是有名有姓。写作者总是有名有姓的“那一个”,而不是模棱两可、无从确认的“某一个”。诗歌写作的这种个人性,贯穿古今,而且中外皆然。

中国第一个有名有姓的诗人是谁?是屈原。屈原,名平,字原。瞧,古人名字里,“名”和“字”是互相补充、彼此呼应的。我们把平坦的辽阔地域叫做平原。屈是姓,但这个字冥冥之中也决定了屈原的命运:他满心冤屈,悲愤苦吟,竟至绝望,然后投汨罗江,怀石自沉(如果在今天,报纸又会说他是死于抑郁症)。愤怒出诗人,实际上,冤屈也出诗人。屈原的《离骚》中,那股因遭受压抑而愈发激昂的心气,最终给了汉语诗歌一种气质:冤而嗟叹,不折其志。发展到后来的词,“幽怨”这种情致,就更有“个人性”,比如李清照的“凄凄惨惨切切”。

汉语诗歌,以唐为盛。现在还有诗人,以“回到唐朝”作为人生指归。当然,唐朝是回不去的;真要回去,也只能“梦回唐朝”。诗歌只能往前走,没有回头路。唐朝只属于唐朝,属于唐朝的李白、王维、杜甫、白居易……他们一个个都有名有姓。透过五言、七律这些诗体,中国诗歌攀上了顶峰。但是,李白、王维、杜甫、白居易……他们是从不同的地点出发,以不同的走路步伐、不同的行进速度、不同的喘息节奏……分头登上顶峰的。所以说,这个顶峰,也是他们各自的顶峰。诗歌之山,其实不是一座山,而是一派山脉,有点像大理的苍山,没有共同的顶峰,而是苍山十九峰,夹着十八溪。读李白、王维、杜甫、白居易的诗,我们就能明白,诗歌写作的个人性,就是诗人的个体生命贯注在诗篇中的个性气质,就是诗人感知世界和表达内心的独特视角和嗓音。

个人性,说到底,就是个人嗓音的独特性。一个诗人凭此,同其他诗人相区分,并被读者识别出来。甭说诗歌写作是个人的,连真理都是个人的。写诗,就是诗人追求真理的个人方式。

2.文化能分“内来”和“外来”吗?我觉得最好不要分。

我观察到,近百年来的新诗演变,一直存在着两个焦虑:一个是古今之争,另一个是中外之争。

古今之争,通过“断裂式”(从文言文跳到白话文)的剧变,似乎已经解决了。其实没有解决。我们发现,习古诗者,仍然为数甚众,当然新诗已然占了上风,在习古诗者和写新诗的人之间,好像没有共同语言,双方彼此贬抑。实际上,写作的个人性,就是它们之间的共通之处。五言、七律,是定型诗(诗体有外在的强制性的形式要求),发端于白话的现代诗,则是非定型诗(主动放弃押韵,可以长短不一,追求每一首诗的语言生成、情感密度和节奏力量)。我相信,古诗仍然活在现代诗人身上,因为传统本身是血液和气脉,那种传承有隐秘性,但DNA一测就测出来了。传统从来不是僵死的东西。传统的力量,正是指传统必须在新的探索中延展活力,长出新枝。

中外之争,体现在比如“写作原创和翻译影响”这样的人为对立上。其实,每一个中国现代诗人都站在“古今中外”这个十字路口;绿灯亮起,我们走过了一个十字路口,但别急,下一个路口,还叫古今中外。文化是什么?文化是我们日常生存所能体现的一切习惯和行为,所以已经包含了“中今中外”的内容。从来没有一脉相、单线直传的所谓文化。要说“影响”,不如说“吸收”或“转化”。诗人的胃,见什么新鲜就吃什么,只要有营养就行,不会去管它是古来的还是外来的。吃进去了,胃就一定能吸收一部分,哪怕吃坏了肚子,没准也是一次清肠。公元以来,佛教传入,我们现在有多少词汇,都是出自佛教典籍;洋务运动,激发翻译,我们现在有多少概念,都是翻译而生的外来语。甚至新诗本身,它的诞生,一方面固然是由于定型诗自身内部压力的推动,但不可否认,最直接的动力,却是对外国诗歌的翻译。伟大的中国现代作家鲁迅,首先是一个翻译家。扩而言之,当今的中国,甚至我们赖以思维的思想概念,从“人性”“民主”到“形而上”“存在”……都是得自翻译。

得自翻译,但又化出,生成新的智慧,这就是禅宗。禅宗可以是中国人自己的智慧生发,汉语诗歌的现代性,也完全可以通过“汉语的吸收力和创造力”建构起来。

我的想法是,要从“古今之争”和“中外之争”这种双重焦虑中跳出来,来思考全球化语境下“创作的互文性”和“翻译的可能性”。

通过对翻译的实践和思考,我越来越意识到,我们正处在一个翻译的世纪。诗歌翻译,说到底,是另一种诗歌写作。不是通过别的妙法,正是经由翻译诗歌的刺激和滋养,当代汉语诗歌打开了一种新的可能性,或者说找到了一个新的生长点。

我们说“外来文化影响”,其实就是在说“翻译诗歌影响”。它发生在我们每一个诗人身上。有一类诗歌,它的积累正变得越来越有规模,它的诗学具有混血和杂交的性质,它把“影响的焦虑”吸收并内化为一种“再生的努力”,它就叫“翻译诗歌”。

On “Individual Writingand Foreign Culture’s Influence”

ShuCai

Writing is all about individual. Morespecifically, poem writing always features certain individuality.

Individuality means a concrete writer, “theone” with an exact and specific name, instead of “one" that is ambiguousand uncertain. The individuality of poetic writing exists at all times and inall countries.

Thenwho is the first recorded Chinese poet? It is Quyuan, whose given name is Pingand who styled himself as Yuan. We can see from the ancient names that givenname and style name are mutually complementary and consistent with each other.People call a flat and vast expanse of land as Pingyuan (plain). Qu is hisfamily name, and his life seemed to be destined by it: treated with injustice,full of grief and indignation, he became desperate and finally drowned himselfin the Miluo River with stones fastened (if it happened today, it would bereported that depressive disorder caused his death). Indignation makes poets,so does injustice. The sufferance from repression aroused his long- restrainedpassion and ambition, which contributed a kind of shared characteristic toChinese poets and their poems: wronged and desperate, while still highlymotivated with ambition. Poems afterwards featuring “melancholy” became moreindividualized. So dull, so damp, so dank, so dead from a poem by Li Qingzhao,for example. 

Poetry prevailed in Tang Dynasty. Even now,there is still some modern poets who regard “let poetry back to Tang Dynasty”as their life goal. Apparently, there is no going back to Tang Dynasty, if so,just in dreams. Poetry advances towards the future and never dwells in thepast. Tang Dynasty belongs to itself and to poets like Libai, Wangwei, Dufu,and Bai juyi…. Each of them has a concrete name. Composed of five-character orseven-character lines, Chinese poetry has made it to its summit. However, thepoets like Libai, Wangwei, Dufu and Baijuyi, reached the summit separately fromdifferent places, at diverging paces and speeds, with various rhythms ofbreath. It is fair to say, they reached their own-belonged summit of poetry.The mountain of poetry is not separated or isolated but integral and united,just like the Cang Mountain in Dali with no conjunct crest. The poems by Li,Wang, Du, and Bai…… make us realize the individuality of poetry writing meansthe embedment of poets’ individual life in the poems with personality andunique view and voice with which poets perceive the outside and express theinside.

After all, individuality is the uniquenessof personal expression by which a poet distinguishes himself from others andmakes him recognizable by readers. Even the truth is all about individuality,needless to say poetry. Writing poems is a personal way in which poets seek thetruth.

2. Can culturebe labelled as “local” and “foreign”? Better not!

As I have noticed, over hundreds of yearsof evolution, there have been two concerns over poetry: the ancient/modernargument and Chinese/Western argument.

It seems that the dramatic transition fromclassical Chinese to vernacular Chinese has been the solution of the argumenton ancient and modern. Well, it has not. Discovery has been made that there arestill numerous ancient poetry learners even though modern poetry dominatesnowadays. Seemingly, people of two sides share nothing in common and thinkslittle of one another. In practice, the individuality of writing makes theircommon ground. Those featuring five or seven character are defined as poemswith fixed formality (traditional poems, which has compulsory requirements ofform). Deriving from vernacular Chinese, modern poetry is classified asnon-traditional poems (which has abandon the employment of rhyme and hasdifferent length, focusing on word organization, emotion expressing andrhythm). I am convinced that ancient poetry is still alive in modern poetsbecause the imperceptibility hidden in poetry can be passed down as blood andgene, but a DNA test tells all. Tradition like poetry never fails to renovate.The power of tradition enables itself to extend its vitality and createsomething new.

Theargument on Chinese and foreign is reflected in opposite views on originalwriting and the influence of translation. In fact, each of modern Chinese poetis standing at the crossroads of antiqueness/nativeness andmodernity/foreignness. When green light is on, they cross over and keep pacinguntil the next crossroad confronts them. What is culture? It includes all thebehavior and habits echoed in our daily life. To some extent, it contains thecontents whether they are modern or ancient, Chinese or foreign. Isolated andmonolith culture never exists. It is more suitable to regard it as assimilationor transition than influence. Figuratively, it is like eating food. Poets eatwhatever is fresh and nutritive, whether it is from the ancient or the foreign.Digestion happens inevitably even if there is a risk of diarrhea.Optimistically, diarrhea is good for intestinal sweeping. Since the Buddhismwas introduced in China around the 1st century AD, a large amount of words havebeen brought along, most of which are Buddhist sutras. Westernization Movementstimulating the development of translation has contributed the formation of newideas and concepts composed of borrowed words from translated works. The birthof new poetry is on one hand due to the internal promotion of traditionalpoetry, but on the other hand, undeniably, is most attributed to the directmotivation aroused by the translation of foreign poetry. The great modernChinese writer Luxun was in the first place a translator. Widely, all themodern Chinese ideas and concepts that we count on owe to translation, fromhumanity, democracy to metaphysics and existence…..

Dhyanna is a Buddhist sect which hadits roots in translated sutras and later developed into a new treasure ofChinese wisdom. It is also true of the modernity of Chinese poetry which can beachieved through the absorptivity and creativity inhered in Chinese language.

What I am thinking is that we should not berestricted and confined by the dual anxiety caused by the two arguments, andthink about “the intertextuality of creation” and “the possibility oftranslation” with a global perspective.

The practice and thinking over translationmake me increasingly realize that we are experiencing a new era of translation.The translation of one poem is all about the recreation of the other. ModernChinese poetry are facing new possibility and growing point through thestimulation and nourishment incurred by translated poetry and by no means ofnostrum.

The influence brought by foreign culture isequivalent to that brought by translated poetry. It happens to each of poet.There is an emerging type of poetry, with the quality of hybridism, which isaccumulating in scales and which is assimilating "the concerns overinfluence” and internalizing it as “the attempt to renew”. It is calledtranslated poetry.